Jung Un Jang is a Professor of the Graduate School of Optometry, Eulji University, South Korea. She is also In-charge of Joint Master Degree of Clinical Optometry, Marshall B Ketchum University (Southern California College of Optometry) and Eulji University. She has served as a Reviewer for the Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research, Clinical Ophthalmology, Clinical Optometry and also the Korean Journal of Vision Science. She has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of The Korean Society of Vision Science and The Open Ophthalmology Journal.
This study is to investigate the effect of the color and the color density of lens on change of the accommodation functions. A total of 31 university students were selected who had no history of eye injuries and who were not taking any medications. Also, none of the schoolchildren had any eye diseases, strabismus or amblyopia that may affect the visual acuity and refractive status. We measured accommodative amplitude used add the minus lens test. Positive and negative relative accommodation also accommodation of lag unfused measured cross cylinder and fused cross cylinder were determined by a phoropter (DU-7000) with auto chart projector (CCP-3100; Huvitz) at 40 cm. Monocular and binocular accommodative facility was measured with a 2.00 D flipper. All tests were measured without color lens and with the color (gray, blue, brown) and the color density (50%, 80%) of lens is changed. As a result, no significant difference between OU, OD and OS so it was used for the analysis based on the OU. The NRA/PRA and the accommodative facility were when students wearing the color lens increased more than those wearing the no color lens. In particular, the accommodative facility was when students wearing the color density (50%) of lens and color of gray were the highest. When the color and color density was combined, the accommodative amplitude, lag, facility and NRA/PRA increased. Therefore, we know that color lens will be applied to the eye glasses of persons needed alternately the distant and the near vision in field of sports, driving and learning.
Ming-Shan He has his expertise in treatment and passion in improving the retinal and macular disorders. His open and contextual evaluation model based on responsive constructivists creates new pathways for improving healthcare. He has built this model after years of experience in research, evaluation, teaching and administration both in hospital and education institutions.
This case report aims to report a rare etiology of branch retinal vein occlusion in adolescence. Herein we would like to present a rare case of young patient with BRVO due to papillary venous loop, and summarize the highlight points from review of the literature. To the best of knowledge, our case is the first one that report the papillary venous loop could cause branch retinal vein occlusion. A 22 year-old college boy without systemic diseases presented to our clinic with complaints of seeing light spots over right lower half of the visual field for five days. Ophthalmic examination revealed a flame-shaped hemorrhage over temporal upper retina in the right eye (OD), other ophthalmic examinations were non-remarkable. Vital signs were checked with a stable blood pressure and heart rate within normal limits. Laboratory studies showed a normal range of complete blood count, random-glucose, lipid profiles, coagulation profiles, autoimmune indicators and inflammatory index. The fluorescein angiography revealed a delayed return of temporal upper venous circulation with an underlying ischemic zone at 22 seconds, and a small venous loop was visible and continuously enhanced since 42 seconds OD. A final diagnosis of papillary venous loop results in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion (BRVO) OD was made. Branch retinal vein occlusion is a rare ophthalmic disease in young patients. In this population, a different differential diagnosis would be listed compared with the elderly. Papillary venous loop is one of the rare causes of branch retinal vein occlusion in youth, which should be bear in mind during clinical approaching.